In a small bowl, whisk together the soy sauce, vinegar, sugar, sesame oil, and cornstarch.
In a large nonstick skillet, heat 2 teaspoons of the canola oil over medium-high heat. Add the shrimp and cook, stirring frequently, until pink and opaque throughout, about 3 minutes. Transfer to a plate.
Add the remaining 2 teaspoons of the canola oil to the now-empty pan and add the onion, red pepper, green pepper, and mushrooms, and cook, stirring frequently, until tender but still crisp, about 3 minutes.
Add the garlic, ginger, and jalapeño and cook, stirring constantly, until fragrant, 30 seconds to 1 minute. Add the soy sauce mixture, bring to a boil, and then reduce the heat to medium and simmer until thickened, 1 to 2 minutes.
Return the shrimp to the pan and stir to coat in the sauce. Serve immediately.