In a food processor or blender, combine the peanut butter, soy sauce, lime juice, honey, sesame oil, ginger, and garlic and pulse until smooth. Set aside.
Boil the soba noodles according to the package directions.
While the noodles are boiling, in a large nonstick skillet, heat the olive oil over medium-high heat. Add the shrimp and cook, stirring frequently, until pink and opaque throughout, about 3 minutes. Transfer to a plate.
Drain the noodles and put them into a large serving bowl. Add the cabbage, carrots, scallions, and dressing, and toss to combine. To serve, divide the dressed noodles among four serving bowls and then top each portion with shrimp.